Dit is de html-versie van het bestand http://www.omeopatia.org/upload/Image/my_operatori/CGE%20.pdf.
G o o g l e maakt automatisch een html-versie van documenten bij het indexeren van het web.
Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats
Page 1
ORIGINAL PAPER
Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma
complex in cats
Ronit Aboutboul
Ã
Animan Veterinary Clinic, Jabotinsky 1, Tel-Aviv 63479, Israel
:
Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized
by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly
symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects.This paper summarizes homeo-
pathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were
chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions
were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recover-
ies. Homeopathy (2006) 95, 15–19.
Keywords: homeopathy; veterinary homeopathy; eosinophilic granuloma; EGC;
cats; snake remedies
Introduction
During the last few years, in our veterinary
practice, we have made interesting observations con-
cerning the homeopathic treatment of a chronic skin
syndrome in cats known as eosinophilic granuloma
complex (EGC).
EGC includes three clinical entities characterized by
various lesions affecting the skin and oral cavity of the
cat:1–3
Linear granuloma or eosinophilic granuloma is a skin
condition occurring mainly in young cats and present-
ing as erythematous, alopecic, well-circumscribed,
linear lesions found mainly over the caudal thighs
and in a nodular pattern in the oral cavity. Other sites
include the bridge of the nose, chin, lips and paws.
Eosinophilic Plaque is a well-circumscribed, raised,
exudative lesion that is very pruritic and generally
found over the abdomen or groin. Eosinophilic Rodent
Ulcer is a well-circumscribed, ulcerated lesion most
commonly found on the upper lip of the cat and is
generally non-painful and non-pruritic.
Any combination of lesions, symptoms and loca-
tions can be observed in individual cases. Suspected
aetiologies for EGC are numerous and varied. Under-
lying causes or predisposing factors include al-
lergies (mainly to food, biting insects and inhaled
substances, but also to parasites), infectious diseases,
genetic predisposition and immune-mediated diseases,
and in quite a few cases the cause is unknown.
Diagnosis of EGC is based on history, physical
symptoms, blood tests and histological findings. Full
blood count may reveal peripheral eosinophilia asso-
ciated with parasitic and allergic disorders. Skin biopsy
is the most important diagnostic test, often confirming
a suspected clinical finding. Specific histological
patterns have been associated with the three clinical
entities, all presenting tissue eosinophilia as a constant
finding.
Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic,
aiming at controlling the suspected underlying infec-
tious or parasitic agent or minimizing the allergic
reaction with corticosteroid, antihistamine or hypo-
sensitization therapies. These treatments do not
usually cure the cat and may have undesirable side
effects. Symptoms often recur if therapy is interrupted.
Avoidance of allergenic factors is problematic too,
since most of them exist naturally in the cat’s
environment. A chronic condition with a significant
incidence in cats, EGC is a pathology that can cause
major discomfort to the cat and upset their owners.
Homeopathic treatment of EGC in cats is usually
based, as in other chronic conditions, on repertoriza-
tion and individual case taking leading to a specific
matching remedy. In some cases, symptomatic reme-
dies are also used.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
ÃCorrespondence: Ronit Aboutboul, Animan Veterinary Clinic,
Jabotinsky 1, Tel-Aviv 63479, Israel.
E-mail: ronitvet@zahav.net.il
Received 11 March 2005; revised 8 August 2005; accepted 5
September 2005
Homeopathy (2006) 95, 15–19
r 2005 The Faculty of Homeopathy
doi:10.1016/j.homp.2005.09.001, available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com

Page 2
We first used homeopathic treatment for EGC at our
clinic in the summer of 1996, when the first EGC case
was referred to the clinic by the treating veterinarian,
for homeopathic treatment. The patient, Swissa, a
male cat aged 2 years, had been suffering from pruritic
lesions from the age of 6 months. He had been treated
regularly with corticosteroids since the symptoms had
appeared. At the first consultation the cat seemed sad
and nervous, presenting with a dull, thin fur and
pruritic excoriations. The owner said that his cat had
become sad because of the corticosteroid treatment,
reacting more and more aggressively to the frequent
injections he was receiving. The skin condition had not
improved, which is the reason why an alternative
treatment was considered.
A skin biopsy was performed and histological
findings confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic
granuloma. After repertorization, Lachesis was se-
lected. Treatment with that remedy brought a swift
improvement of both skin lesions and the general
condition of the cat. The owner ‘‘got back his old cat’’
as he termed it, the cat became happy and playful
again and his fur became dense and lustrous. Several
months later Swissa came back presenting with a
singular, atypical symptom of swelling of one of his
paws .The cat could not use the paw that had tripled in
size(!). Treatment with the remedy Crotalus cascavella
brought a quick and total recovery. This cat has been
fine since, with no other symptoms.
A short time after Swissa was cured, another cat was
brought to the clinic, also presenting with typical EGC
symptoms. After repertorization, Lachesis was given
again and the symptoms disappeared swiftly. These
two cases of quick and lasting recoveries raised some
questions and thoughts concerning snake remedies and
EGC, ie the possibility that other eosinophilic granu-
loma cases would respond well to snake remedies
because of the similarities in symptoms. This assump-
tion was, from then on, always taken into account
when treating cases of confirmed or suspected EGC in
cats, even though individual repertorizations were
done in most cases.
Methods and remedies
Over a period of 8 years, 20 EGC cases were seen at
our clinic; of these 15 were recorded. All were treated
with homeopathic snake remedies. The cats were all
young adults, 70% males and 30% females. The first
EGC symptoms appeared at ages ranging from several
months to 2 years old. Diagnosis of EGC was based on
the clinical observation of characteristic dermatologi-
cal lesions and usually confirmed by biopsy.
Most snake remedies were chosen through repertor-
ization, using the RADAR program.4 Symptoms for
repertorizations of EGC cases were chosen from
several sections of the repertory, usually Mind
symptoms accompanied by local characteristic symp-
toms of Mouth, Face, Skin and Extremities.
In each case, five to seven individual symptoms were
chosen.
Results
Out of the 15 recorded cases, medication was refused
by the owner in one case, three were lost to follow-up
(owners discontinuing contact or treatment) and one
did not improve (treatment discontinued after several
weeks). Ten cats were cured.
The remedies used were Lachesis (9 cases), Crotalus
cascavella (1 case), Crotalus horridus (1), Cenchris
contortrix (1), Elaps corallinus (1), Naja (1) and Vipera
(1). In the two cases where Lachesis was replaced by a
second snake remedy, only the second is counted here.
The remedies were given in various centesimal (12CH
to 30CH) and LM dilutions, in varying frequencies,
according to the dynamics of each case. Follow-ups
were conducted every 1 to 6 months.
Out of the 11 cases of which we have follow-ups,
amelioration of clinical condition was achieved with
the first snake remedy in eight. In two cases, the first
remedy, Lachesis, was replaced by a second snake
remedy; no case required a third remedy to achieve full
cure. In one case, the snake remedy Crot-horr was
given after Lycopodium, thus achieving cure (medica-
tion repetition is depicted in Table 1).
In the cured cases, effect of the remedy was noted
early on in the treatment, in the first 2 weeks, and
symptoms completely disappeared in a period ranging
from 2 weeks to 3 months. In two of the cases,
symptoms tend to reappear periodically, with stress
(anaesthesia, vaccinations, long absences of the
owners, etc) and disappear again with or without
administration of the remedy. In one case only,
despite good cooperation of the owners for several
weeks, the treatment was discontinued because of lack
of response (time schedule for improvement is depicted
in Figure 1).
All the cats treated with homeopathy presented
typical local EGC symptoms (Table 2). Their local
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Table 1 Outcome in 15 cases of EGC in cats
Lost to follow-up
No response
Good response (cure)
4
1
10
Did not take Remedy given once—lost to follow-up Remedy given once Remedy changed Remedy repeated Remedy given once
1
3
1
2
2
6
The numbers denote no. of cases.
Snake remedies for EGC in cats
R Aboutboul
16
Homeopathy

Page 3
homeopathic symptoms chosen for repertorization
surprisingly brought to the forefront various snake
remedies (Table 2). Although local symptoms played
an important role in repertorizations of the EGC cats,
MIND symptoms, as well as a few GENERALS, were
also used in the case taking (Table 3). The frequency of
snake remedies in all the chapters used for repertoriza-
tions of EGC cases is visualized in Table 4.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2 weeks 1 month
2 months 3 months 4 months
Time to improvement
Time from begining of treatment
Number of cases
Time to achieve
100% improvement
Time to achieve
50% improvement
Figure 1. Time to achieve 50% and 100% improvement.
Table 2 Comparison of symptoms of EGC cases and snake remedies
Symptoms of EGC
in cats
Corresponding
symptoms in the
repertory
Matching snake
remedies in
repertory
Ã
Frequency of use
of symptom in
repertorizations
Skin lesions:
SKIN—
ITCHING
cench.Crot-h. Lach.
2
Linear, alopecic, erythematous, well-
circumscribed lesions on caudal region
of thighs, usually pruritic
Alopecic lesions on various parts of the
body (abdomen, back ...), sometimes
accompanied by erythema and pruritus
ITCHING—scratching-raw; must scratch
until it is
ITCHING—violent
EXCORIATION–scratching; after-must
scratch it raw
ERUPTIONS—herpetic
ERUPTIONS—herpetic-corrosive
ERUPTIONS—itching
Lach
1
lach
1
Lach
4
crot-h. lach.
1
lach
1
Lach
1
Mouth lesions:
MOUTH—
ULCERS
Crot-c. crot-h.
1
Ulcerated lesions localized on lips,
gums or around the mouth
Swelling of lips
ULCERS—Gums SWELLING
SWELLING—Gums
FACE—SWELLING—Lips—upper
LACH.
Crot-c. Lach.
1
vip.
1
Crot-h. LACH. Naja
1
Crot-h. Lach
1
Foot and pad lesions:
EXTREMITIES—
SWELLING
crot-h, lach, vip
1
Swelling of the foot, sometimes up to
double or triple size ...
Erythematous, usually very pruritic
lesions between the foot pads
SWELLING—Hand
SWELLING—Foot
ERUPTIONS—Hand
ERUPTIONS—Foot
ERUPTIONS—Lower limbs
crot-c. crot-h. elaps,
Lach, naja, vip.
1
Cench.crot-h. elaps
Lach. naja vip.
Lach
Crot-c. lach
Crot-c. elaps lach.
2
ÃIntensity of symptoms is denoted by type of letters (as in the Radar program): 1—lach.; 2—Lach.; 3—LACH.
Table 3 Mind and general symptoms chosen for repertorizations
Symptoms in repertory
Frequency of use of symptom
in repertorizations
MIND
ACTIVITY—Desire
1
AFFECTIONATE
1
COMPANY—aversion to
1
COMPANY—desire for
3
CONTRADICTION—
intolerant of contradiction
1
CURIOUS
2
DICTATORIAL
1
EXERTION—Physical—
desire
2
HIDING—himself
3
JEALOUSY
1
OBSTINATE
2
PLAYFUL
2
POSITIVENESS
1
REPROACHING others
1
RESERVED
2
RESTLESSNESS
1
SENSITIVE—Noise to
2
STARTING, startled—easily
1
TOUCHED—aversion to,
being
2
TIMIDITY
2
VIOLENT
1
GENERALS
FOOD and DRINKS—
farinaceous—desire
1
FOOD and DRINKS—milk—
desire
1
RUBBING—amel
1
SIDE—left
1
VACCINATION, after
1
Snake remedies for EGC in cats
R Aboutboul
17
Homeopathy

Page 4
Clinical case
Ella, a female cat aged 2.5 years, was brought to the
clinic in April 2003, for homeopathic treatment of
EGC symptoms from which she had been suffering
since the age of 6 months. The symptoms included
itching, red lesions between the footpads, erythema-
tous alopecic lesions over the caudal thighs (see
Figure 2a), thinning of fur on the abdomen (due to
constant licking of the area by the cat), ulcers on the
lower lip and alternating swellings of the paws. She was
being treated with corticosteroid injections every 1–2
months, whenever these symptoms aggravated.
Symptoms taken for repertorization were the follow-
ing:
MIND—COMPANY—aversion to
MIND—AFFECTIONATE
MIND—REPROACHING others
SKIN—EXCORIATION—scratching; after—must
scratch it raw
SKIN—ERUPTIONS—itching
EXTREMITIES—SWELLING—hand
Vipera 30CH, once a day for 3 days was prescribed.
Ella started improving immediately, and 2 months
later, with a few repetitions of the remedy, all the
lesions were healing well and fur was growing on the
afflicted areas (see Figure 2(b)). 1.5 years later, she was
well. Slight symptoms appear occasionally, usually
disappearing spontaneously or with just one dose of
the remedy. She was last examined in the summer of
2004, presenting with slight erythema on the caudal
region of the right thigh, and was given Vipera 30CH
once and the symptoms disappeared in a few days.
Summary
As this case illustrates, most of the EGC cases
treated homeopathically at the clinic respond well to
snake remedies. The dilution and frequency of repeti-
tion vary from case to case. Duration of treatment
varies from several weeks to months or years, the aim
being complete cure and disappearance of all the
symptoms. In some cases that result is achieved, in
other cases the specific remedy has to be repeated
sporadically, at months’ intervals, when owners
suspect early symptoms or when stressful situations
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Table 4 Frequency of snake remedies in the repertorizations of EGC cases
Remedy
MIND
SKIN
EXTREMITIES
MOUTH
FACE
GENERALS
Cenchris
4
1
1
Crot-c
7
3
2
1
Crot-h
5
2
3
2
1
2
Elaps
6
4
1
Lachesis
20
7
6
4
1
3
Naja
5
2
1
1
Vipera
2
3
1
1
Two other snake remedies came up in these repertorizations but were not prescribed: Bothrops lanceolatus and Toxicophis pugnax.
Figure 2. (a) Eosinophilic granuloma on thighs—before treat-
ment. (b) Eosinophilic granuloma on thighs—after treatment.
Snake remedies for EGC in cats
R Aboutboul
18
Homeopathy

Page 5
occur. Although food allergies are in the list of
suspected aetiologies for EGC, usually no specific diet
is given to the cats treated at our clinic, except for rare
cases when such a diet is chosen specifically by the
owners.
Discussion
Each of the cats diagnosed with EGC at the clinic
was treated with a remedy chosen through individual
repertorization. However, the high incidence of snake
remedies in the first successful cases encouraged us to
choose remedies of the same family in the cases that
followed. In light of the accumulated experience of
successfully treating EGC cats with snake remedies, as
presented above, a few questions must be put forward:
Why do homeopathic snake remedies act specifically
on EGC?
Why does a rather small, specific, well-defined group
of remedies bring a cure in most cases presenting with
the same pathology, albeit differing in character,
history and even in local symptoms?
Cases differ not only by the localization, intensity
and modalities of their symptoms but also in the
dynamics of the healing process; yet nearly all
responded well to snake remedies. All the repertoriza-
tions suggested snake remedies, and in one case, where
a different remedy was given first, with no success, cure
was achieved on changing the remedy to a snake
remedy.
How do snake remedies affect EGC in cats?
How do they relate? What is common to snake
venom and the characteristic pathology of EGC?
All snake remedies obviously present symptoms that
are caused by snakebites; some of these symptoms,
such as ulcerated lesions, excoriations and swellings
affecting skin, mouth and extremities, are also
characteristic of EGC. Interestingly, in conventional
medicine, snake venoms are used in autoimmune
syndromes, such as Lupus, for their anticoagulant
properties.
Still, it is important to note that, while focusing on
the similarities between snake remedies and EGC on
the physical level, the mental symptoms cannot be
ignored since MIND symptoms were taken into
account in all of the repertorizations. Can this
remedy—syndrome relation be found in other pathol-
ogies? How can this information be put to use in
homeopathy? Do these observations open new path-
ways to cure?
The answers to these questions may be complex and
uncertain, but the observation and research of
accidental findings such as these can lead us homeo-
paths and physicians towards new understandings
considering the concepts of sickness and cure in
homeopathy.
Acknowledgements
I thank Dr Michal Yakir and Tamar Almog.
References
1 Birchard SJ, Sherding RG. Saunders Manual of Small Animal
practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994 pp 341–344.
2 Harvey RG, McKeever PJ. Colour Handbook of Skin Diseases
of the Dog and Cat. London: Manson Publishing Ltd, 1998.
3 Melman SA. Skin Diseases of Dogs and Cats. Dermapet, 1994.
4 RADAR 7 & 8—homeopathic repertorization program, Archi-
bel, Belgium.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Snake remedies for EGC in cats
R Aboutboul
19
Homeopathy